Thursday, 13 November 2014

Direct and Indirect Speech

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH
There are two ways of relating what a person had said. They are direct and indirect. In direct speech we may quote the original speaker’s exact words. We use inverted commas to mark off the exact words of the speaker.
Ex: Padmaja said,” I have found my purse”.
In Indirect speech we give the exact meaning of a remark or speech, without necessarily using the speaker’s exact words.
Ex: Padmaja said that she had found her purse.
The following changes can be noticed in the above sentence which is changed from direct into indirect.
i)           We have to use the conjunction that before the Indirect speech.
ii)         The verb ‘have found’ is changed into had found.
iii)       The comma after ‘said’ and the quotation marks are removed
iv)       The pronoun’ I ‘is changed to’ she’.

Rules for changing direct into indirect speech.
1)When changing from direct into indirect speech if the reporting verb is in the past tense, all present tenses of the direct speech are changed into the corresponding past tenses.
a)      Simple present  : Changes to simple past
b)      Present continuous changes to past continuous
c)       Simple past changes to past perfect
d)      Present perfect changes to past perfect
e)      Past continuous changes to past perfect continuous
f)       Shall , will changes to should, would
2)    When the introductory verb is in the present , present perfect or future tense, no change in tense is necessary
Ex: She says ,” I am reading “.(direct)
 She says that she is reading. (indirect)
3)      Pronouns in the first and second person in direct speech are changed into the third person in indirect speech.
Ex: He said, “My pen was found “(direct)
He said that his pen had been found. (indirect)
1)      The words denoting nearness or changed into words denoting distance  
This                becomes                     that
These            becomes                     those
Here              becomes                     there
Now              becomes                     then
Today            becomes                     that day
Tomorrow   becomes                     next day
Tomorrow night                                               next night
Yesterday    becomes     the day before or previous day                               
Last night    becomes   the night before or previous night
Ago                becomes                     before
Thus              becomes                     so
Here by        becomes                     there by
2)      In reporting questions the indirect speech is introduced by some such verbs as asked enquired etc.
       When the question is not introduced by interrogative words, the reporting verb is followed by whether or if
 Ex:   She said to me,” Where are you going “. (Direct)
 She asked me where you were going. (Indirect)
 Ex:   He said,” Will you listen to such a man “, (direct)
            He asked them whether they would listen to such a man (indirect)
3)      To report a command or request in indirect speech, we must change the reporting verb to told, ordered, commanded, requested etc. and the order or request into    the   infinitive.                                                                    Ex:   The teacher said to her students, “Please be quiet”. (direct)
The teacher requested her students to be quiet. (indirect)
4)      To report an exclamation or a wish in indirect speech, we must change the reporting verb into such verbs as exclaimed, praised, blamed, applauded, wished, desired etc.
Ex: Bhanu said to Latha ,” Go away “. (Direct)
      Bhanu ordered Latha to away (indirect).
Ex2:  Ravi said, “Alas! I am ruined “(direct)

          Ravi exclaimed with a sigh that he was ruined. (Indirect)