Thursday, 13 November 2014

English Grammar for CAT ,GRE and GMAT - Active Voice and Passive Voice

ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE
A verb is in the active voice when it tells what the subject does; a verb is in the passive voice when it tells what the subject suffers. We know that only a verb used transitively can take an object; therefore , only a transitive verb has only one voice, the active voice.

RULES FOR CHANGING ACTIVE VOICE INTO PASSIVE VOICE

1)   When a sentence is changed from active to passive, the object becomes subject of the passive.
Ex: Teachers teach lessons. (A.V)
Lessons are taught by teachers. (P.V)
Srilatha posted the letter. (A.V)
The letter was posted by Srilatha (P.V)

2)   When the subject in active voice is unknown, it remains unexpressed in the passive voice.
Ex: Someone has posted the letter. (A.V)
The letter has been posted by someone. (P.V)
People like cricket all over the world. (A.V)
Cricket is liked all the over the world. (P.V)

3)   The passive voice is formed by putting the verb to be into the appropriate tense and adding the past participle.
Ex:  He takes. (A.V) simple present;
He is taken. (P.V)
He is taking.  (A.V) present continuous
He is being taken. (P.V)        

4)   In the passive voice the agent, when mentioned is preceded by the preposition by.
Ex: Yandamuri wrote this novel. (A.V)
This novel is written by Yandamuri. (P.V)

5)   When a verb in the active voice has an indirect as well as a direct object, either of them can become the subject of the passive.
Ex: Latha gave me a pen . (A.V)
I was given a pen by Latha.
A book was given (to) me by Latha.

6)    When we wish to turn an imperative active into the passive ,
We have to make use of a paraphrase , using the verb let.
Ex: Tell her to come. (A.V)
Let her be told to come. (P.V)
Close the doors . (A.V)
Let doors are  closed (P.V)

STRUCTURE OF PASSIVE VOICE

1)   Subject + is (or) am (or) are + past participle form of the verb. (Simple present tense).
Ex: I do not want that book. (A.V)
That book is not wanted by me. (P.V)
Raju brings us vegetables.(A.V)
Vegetables are brought to us by Raju. (P.V)
He plays cricket. (A.V)
Cricket is played by him. (P.V)
 I saw him. (A.V)
He is seen by me. (P.V).

2)   Subject + was (or) were + past participle form of the verb. (Simple past tense).
Ex: They built a house. (A.V)
A house was built by them. (P.V)
Anushka opened the shop. (A.V)
The shop was opened by Anushka. (P.V)
Siva broken the glass. (A.V)
The glass was broken by Siva. (P.V)
I bought some fruits. (A.V)
Some fruits are bought by me. (P.V)

3)   Subject + will (or) shall (or) going to + be + past participle form of the verb.
Ex: Hari will buy a car.(A.V)
A car will be bought by Hari. (P.V)
The Doctor is going to operate the patient tomorrow. (A.V)
 The patient is going to be operated by the Doctor. (P.V)
He will go there. (A.V)
He will be gone there. (P.V)
I will meet Tarun. (A.V)
Tarun will be met by me. (P.V)

4)   Subject + is (or) am (or) are + being+ past participle of the verb. (Present continuous tense).
Ex:  Sarika is watering the plants. (A.V)
 The plants are being watered by Sarika. (P.V)
            Saritha is preparing food. (A.V)
            The food is being prepared by Saritha. (P.V)
Bindu is singing songs. (A.V)
Songs are being sung by Bindu. (P.V)
 They are practicing meditation. (A.V)
Meditation is being practiced by them. (P.V)

5)   Subject + was (or) were + being past participle form of the verb. ( Past continuous tense).
Ex: The cow was eating the grass. (A.V)
The grass was being eaten by the cow’ (P.V)
Sudha was knitting the sweaters. (A.V)
Sweaters were being knitted by Sudha. (P.V)
My brother was preparing study material. (A.V)
Study material was being prepared by my brother. (P.V)

1)   Subject + has (or) have + been + past participle form of the verb. (Present perfect tense).
Ex: I have paid the tution fee (A.V)
Tution fee has been paid by me. (P.V)
Pranavi has stolen my purse. (A.V)
My purse has been stolen by Pranavi. (P.V)
My son has drawn a picture. (A.V)
A picture has been drawn by my son (P.V)
She has performed a dance item. (A.V)
A dance item has been performed by her. (P.V)

2)   Subject + had been + past participle form of the verb. (Past perfect tense)                  
Ex:  Revathi had finished the home work, by the time I visited her house. (A.V)
The home work had been finished by her, by the time I visited her house. (P.V)

3)   Subject + will (or) shall+ have been + past participle form of the verb. (Future perfect tense)
Ex: The project will have finished by them before then. (A.V)
The project will have been finished by them before then. (P.V)

4)    For auxiliary verbs; subject + any auxiliary verb + be + past participle form of the verb.
Ex:We should respect our parents. (A.V)
Our parents should be respected by us. (P.V)
Fathima cannot do it. (A.V)
It cannot done by Fathima. (P.V)
Students have to obey the teacher. (A.V)
The teacher has to be obeyed by students. (P.V)
Veera could solve the problem. (A.V)
The problem could be solved by Veera. (P.V)
There is no active voice for future continuous tense.
There is no active voice for perfect continuous tenses.

NOTE :
1)    Avoid using active and passive in the same sentence.
Use one verb instead of two whenever possible