Friday, 10 July 2015

13. Verbal Reasoning for Placement Papers --- WORD ANALOGY TYPES OF ANALOGIES with Examples

WORD ANALOGY


Solving analogies is a terrific way to sharpen your thinking skills and prepare for standardized tests. An analogy is a type of word problem that consists of two word pairs, like the following.
Example:

1) GRACEFUL:  CLUMSY :: HOT: _______
Find a word that correctly completes the second pair. At first glance, the words in an analogy may seem to have nothing to do with each other, but the words are always logically related. The first pair of words has a relationship similar to the second pair of words.
Ask yourself: What's the relationship between graceful and clumsy? These words are antonyms -- they have opposite meanings -- so the second pair of words must also be antonyms. Fill in the blank with a word that means the opposite of "hot", and you’ve solved the analogy. The best answer is "COLD." If you find an unfamiliar word in an analogy, use a dictionary to check its meaning.

Some Common Analogy Types:

Animal – Sound Relation:
Example :Apes : Gibber ::  Cats : __
     a)    Twitter          b)Bellow        c)Bark          d)Mew
Explanation : Here , we have Animal – Sound relationship. The sound of Apes is Gibber. So we have to tell the sound of Cats . The sound of cats is Mew

Cause and Effect
Example :Goiter’ :‘Iodine’ ::‘Anemia’ :: _
(a)      Vitamin         (b) Blood       (c)      Iron    (d) Weakness
Explanation : Here, we have cause and effect relationship. ‘Goiter’ is caused by the deficiency of ‘Iodine’. So, if ‘Goiter’ is related to ‘Iodine’, then ‘Anemia’ will be related to ‘Iron’ as ‘Anemia’ is caused by the deficiency of ‘Iron’. Hence, our answer is (c).

Home – Object:
Example: Aerodrome: Aeroplanes:: Dockyard : __
     a)   Ships            b)Cars          c) Go downs            d) Trains
Explanation :  Here, the home of aeroplanes is Aerodromes. :: , Dockyard is the home for ships .Hence , our answer is A

Subset - a Set
Example : ‘Page’ : ‘Book’ :: ‘Leaf ::__
(a)      Root    (b) Trunk       (c)      Tree    (a) Forest
Explanation :  ‘Page’ is a part of ‘Book’ and :: we see that ‘Leaf is a part of ‘Tree’. Hence, our answer is (c).

Object – Diminutive:
Dimunities are nouns that express smallness either actual or imputed in token of affection or contempt or otherwise
Example : Baron : Baronet ::  Book ::
a)Booklet                           b)Publication             c)Author                  d)Novel
Explanation :  Here Baronet expresses the smallness of Baron, :: , Booklet expresses the smallness of Book.

Quantity - Unit
Example : ‘Current’ :‘Ampere’ :‘Weight’ :
(a)      Scale                       (b) Pound                (c)      Pascal           (d) Measurement
Explanation :  ‘Current’ is measured in terms of ‘Ampere’ and ‘Weight’ is measured in terms of ‘Pound’. Hence, our answer is (b).

Instrument and Measurement
Example : ‘Seismograph’ :‘Earthquakes’ : ‘Lactometer’ :
(a) Fever                 b)Current                (c)      Purity of Milk            (d) Humidity
Explanation :  Relationship given in the question is the relationship between instrument and the quantity measured by it. ‘Seismograph’ measures ‘Earthquakes’ and ‘Lactometer’ measures ‘Purity of Milk’. Hence, our answer is (c).

Religion – Place of Worship  
Example : Temple : Hindus ::  Mosque : ___
     a)    Muslims                   b)Christians                       c)Sikhs                    d)Jews
Explanation : Hindus worship to their god in temples, :: Muslims pray to their god Mosque.

Worker – Tools
Example : ‘Doctor’ is related to ‘Stethoscope’ :: as ‘Painter’ is related to
 (a) Painting             (b) Brush                 (c)      Exhibition                 (d) Art
Explanation: ‘Stethoscope’ is used by a ‘Doctor’ as a tool to perform his work. Similarly, a ‘Painter’ uses a ‘Brush’ as a tool to perform his work. Hence, our answer is (b).

Worker – Working Place :
Example : Pilot : Cockpit ::  Ambassador : ___
a) Parliament           b) Secretariat                     c) Embassy             d)MNC
Explanation : Pilot works in cockpit, :: , a country’s ambassador works in their Embassy.
Hence, Answer is C

Sex( Male –Female ) Relationship
Example : ‘Bull’ : ‘Cow’ :: ‘Horse’ :_
(a) Animal                        (b) Mare                  (c)      Stable           (d) Meat
Explanation : This is based on male-female relationship. Bull is male and Cow is female. :: ‘Horse’ is male and ‘Mare’ is female horse. Hence, our answer is (b).

Part – Whole
Example : Petal : Flower :: Letter : __
     a)    Word                      b)Week                   c)River                             d)Shirt
Explanation : Petal is a part of flower. ::, Letter is a part of word. Hence, answer is a.

Word :Antonym
Example : ‘Convict’:’Absolve’:: ‘Attack’ :
(a) Replace              (b)      Fight             (c)      Withstand      (d)      Defend
Explanation : ‘Convict’ is antonym of ‘Absolve’. :: ‘Attack’ is a word opposite in meaning to the word ‘Defend’. Therefore, our answer is (a).

Word :Synonym
Example : Parity : Equality :: Pugnacious:
(a)Arrogant                       b)       Warring         (c)      Warlike         (d)      Proud
Explanation : Parity and Equality are synonyms.. So the word similar in meaning to ‘Pugnacious ’ is ‘Warlike’. Therefore, our answer is (c).

Study : Terminology
Example : ‘Numismatic’ :‘Coin’ :: ‘Paleontology’ :
 (a) Earth                (b) Soil                    (c)      Fossils                     (d) Stones
Explanation : Study of ‘Coin’ is known as ‘Numismatic’. ‘Paleontology’ is the science dealing with study of history of mankind with the help of ‘Fossils’. Hence, our answer is (c).

Part- Part :
Example : Tuesday: Sunday:: Wall : __
     a)    Roof             b)field                     c)Ground                           d)Play
Explanation : Tuesday and Sunday are the parts of a week . ::, wall and roofs are the parts of room.

Action- Object :
Example : Kick : Ball :: Pull :
     a)    Flower                     b) Cart                              c)cards                   d)Kite
Explanation : We ‘ kick ‘ the  ‘ball’, :: , we ‘ pull ‘ the ‘cart ‘
Hence , answer is B

Worker :Product
Example :  ‘Carpenter’ :‘Furniture’ :: ‘Blacksmith’ :__
 (a) Gold                 (b)      Jewellery                 (c)      Shoes            (d)      Metal
Explanation : ‘Carpenter’ makes ‘Furniture’. Similarly, ‘Blacksmith’ makes ‘Metal’. So, our answer is (d).

Association Relationship
Example :  ‘Melt’: ‘Liquid’ :: ‘Freeze’ :
(a) Ice          b)       Solid                      (c)      Water            (d)      Cubes
Explanation : The word ‘Melt’ is associated with ‘Liquid’ because after melting the ice, we obtain liquid. Similarly the state of ‘Water’ after freezing is ‘Ice’. Hence, our answer is (a).

All inclusive relations:
One item is completely included in the other
Example : The Taj : Agra :: The ganga : _
a)River                    b)Jungle                  c)Religion                d)Colours

Explanation: The Taj is located in Agra and :: The ganga is a river
Hence, answer is A

Country: Capital Relation
Example : China : Beijing :: Greece : __
a)Dhaka                  b)Moscow                c)Athens                 d)Tokyo
Explanation: Beijing is the capital of China. Likewise, Athens is the capital of Greece.
Hence , our answer is C

Country : Currency
Example: Japan: Yen:: Russia :_
     a)    Ruble            b)Rupee                  c)Dollar                   d)Pound
Explanation:  The currency of Japan is Yen. In the same way, the currency of Russia is Ruble.

Individual : Class
Example : Ostrich : Bird :: Pen _
a)Furniture              b)Stationary            c)Amphibian             d)Software
Explanation: Ostrich belongs birds category. In the same way, pen belongs to stationary.
Hence answer is B

Animal : Young One
Cow: Calf :: Hen: __
a)Puppy                  b)Cub                      c)Kitten                   d)Chick
Explanation: The younger cow is called calf . In the same way , the younger Hen is called Chick.
Hence , answer is D

Individual : Dwelling Place
Eskimo: Igloo :: Spider : __
     a)    Den              b)Web                    c)Palace                  d)Barracks
Explanation : The dwelling place of Eskimos is Igloo. Likewise , the dwelling place of Spider is web.
Hence , answer is B

Game : Place of Playing
Tennis : Court :: Boxing : __
a)Ring                     b)Arena                  c)Track                   d)Court
Explanation: The place where tennis is played is courte. Likewise , the place where boxing is played is Ring.