Monday, 6 July 2015

04. English Grammer - The Pronoun and Correct Use of Pronouns

THE PRONOUN
A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun or a noun equivalent. Pronouns may be divided into the following classes.
Personal Pronouns: Personal pronouns are used to indicate the person speaking called the first person, the person spoken to called the second person, and the person or thing spoken about called third person.
Ex: I, We, you, he, she, it, they.
Forms of pronouns: cases
               
First Person (Masculine or Feminine)
                                Singular                               plural
Nominative                    I                                       we
Possessive             my, mine                                 our, ours
Accusative                 me                                         us
               
Second Person (Masculine or Feminine)
                                Singular                                Plural
Nominative              thou (you)                                you
Possessive               you (thee)                                you
Accusative               you (thee)                                you
               
 Third Person (Masculine or Feminine)
                   Masculine   Feminine            Neuter         All
Nominative     He              she                    it             they
Possessive     His              her,  hers            it             their
Accusative     Him              her                    it             them

Possessive Pronoun: The possessive pronouns mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs, are used when the noun that they qualify is not expressed after them.
Ex: This book is yours.
Reflexive Pronoun:  This is used to indicate the doer is at once the subject, and the object, of the action expressed by the verb.
Ex: I myself did it.
 He bought it himself.
Demonstrative Pronouns: A demonstrative pronoun points to some noun or noun equivalent going before, and is used instead of it.
Ex: This, that one, such, same, etc.
Interrogative Pronoun: An Interrogative Pronoun is a pronoun that asks a question.
Ex: Who, what, which
1)      Who, whom, whose refer to people
Ex: Who is she?
2)      Which can refers to either people or things
Ex: Which do you like best?
3)      What refers only to things
Ex: What does she want?
Relative Pronouns:  Relative pronouns introduce relative clauses.
Ex: Who, which, what, that, as etc.
Indefinite Pronouns: An Indefinite Pronoun is one which does not show exactly the person or thing which is referred to.
Ex: All, any, somebody, something etc.
Distributive Pronouns: Distributive Pronouns are used to refer to individual or separate member of a group or class. They are followed by the verb in the singular.
Ex: Each, either, neither.
Rules on Pronouns:
1)      When a pronoun stands for a collective noun, it should be used in the singular form.
Ex: The army has left its Head Quarters.
2)      The Indefinite pronoun ‘one’ should be used with one’s for its possessive case.
Ex: One should love one’s country
3)      We should use the personal pronouns in the order of 231 for good results.
Ex: You, he and I are to finish it.
We should use the personal pronouns in the order of 123 when we admit guilt.
Ex: I, you and he have committed the sin.
4)      A pronoun in the nominative form should be compared with the same form of the pronoun.
Ex: I believe you more than him.
5)      When two or more singular nouns are together by either-or, neither-nor the pronoun is singular.
Ex: Either Latha or Lavanya will give her bag.
Ex: Neither Ramya nor Lasya has paid her fee.
6)      A pronoun under possessive case is used before a gerund.
Ex: I am very glad to hear of your coming.
7)       A pronoun in the objective case used after let/between/any preposition.
Ex: Let you and me write (you and me are objectives)
8)      A pronoun in the plural form should be used when two nouns of different members are joined by ‘or’ or ‘nor’.
Ex: Either the principal or his teachers have attended their duty.
9)      The distributive pronouns Either/neither/none/any are used with singular verbs.
 (i) Either/neither are used for two persons/things.
Ex: Either of the two girls is correct.
(ii) None/no one/any are used for more than two persons/things
Ex: No one can believe him.
10)   Agreement of the verb with its antecedent in number and person.
Ex: I who am you mother must believe you.
11)   When a plural noun and a singular noun are joined by ‘or’ or ‘nor’ the pronoun must be in the plural.
Ex: Either the manager or his assistants failed in their duty.
12)   The personal pronouns yours, ours, hers, theirs and its are written without the apostrophe.
Ex: Yours sincerely.
13)   If a pronoun is to be placed after ‘to be’, the pronoun in the subjective case is used.
Ex: It is he.
14)   (i) Each other is used for two persons or things or places etc.
Ex: These two girls like each other.
(ii) One another is used for more than two persons or things.
Ex: The four brothers hate one another
15)   As regards anybody, every one, everybody etc. The pronoun of the masculine or feminine gender should be used according to the context.
Ex: Every one of the girls got her hall ticket.
16)   (i) The relative pronoun who is used for person.
Ex: The girl who got the award was a student.
(ii) Which is used for things.
Ex: The pen which is in your pocket belongs to me.
(iii) That is used both for persons and things.
Ex:The car that you see is mine

Exercise
Correct the following sentences.
The car is her’s
One should keep his promise
I who is your brother must trust you.
Each of the boys have received a prize.
This is which I told him
My brother and myself are leaving for Goa.
Everyone is Lager to occupy their seats
Either of the girls in the class can do it.
You, he and I have committed the fault
Those two countries always help one another.
He enjoyed during the holidays
She is better scholar than any in the college.
Those victims of the accident in our village have nowhere to go.
Neither Latha nor Kavya are present in the class.
None of the boys are going to the movie.
The secretary and Treasure is negligent of their duty
This is the girl which won the award
The Jury were divided in its opinion regarding this issue.
Either of the two servants are honest.
I and he are mainly responsible for your success.
One should stand to his words.
I shall buy my house. Will you by yours?
If I were him. I would not accept it.
Ramya as well as her friends has finished their duty.

Either the lectures or the principal has failed their duty.