Thursday, 23 July 2015

10. English Grammar for Competitive Examinations - Adverb and Position of the Adverbs

           ADVERBS


An adverb normally modifies or adds to the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
Ex: This is a very sweet mango
          There are three classes of adverbs simple, interrogative, conjunctive or relative.

Kind of Adverbs :

Adverb of time
An adverb of time tells us when something is done or happens. We use it at the beginning or at the end of a sentence. We use it as a form of emphasis when we place it at the beginning. Adverbs of time include afterwards, alreadyalwaysimmediatelylast monthnowsoonthen, and yesterday.
·         He collapsed and died yesterday.
·         Her factory was burned down a few months ago.
·         Last month, we were stuck in the lift for an hour.

Adverb of place
An adverb of place tells us where something is done or happens. We use it after the verb, object or at the end of a sentence. Adverbs of place include words such as abovebelowhereoutsideover therethereunder, upstairs.
·         We can stop here for lunch.
·         The girl was knocked over by a school bus.
·         They rushed for their lives when fire broke out in the floor below.

Adverb of manner
An adverb of manner tells us how something is done or happens. Most adverbs of manner end in –ly such as badlyhappilysadlyslowlyquickly, and others that include wellhardfast, etc.
·         The sisters were badly injured in the fight.
·         They had to act fast to save the others floating in the water.
·         At the advanced age of 88, he still sang very well.

Adverb of degree
An adverb of degree tells us the level or extent that something is done or happens. Words of adverb of degree are almostmuchnearlyquitereally,sotoovery, etc.
·         It was too dark for us to find our way out of the cave. (Before adjective)
·         The referee had to stop the match when it began to rain very heavily. (Before adverb)
·         Her son is quite fat for his age.
·         The accident victim nearly died from her injuries.
·         After all these years, he is still feeling very sad about his father’s death.

Adverb of frequency
An adverb of frequency tells us how often something is done or happens. Words used as adverbs of frequency include againalmostalwaysever,frequentlygenerallyhardly evernearlynearly,alwaysnever,occasionallyoftenrarelyseldomsometimestwiceusually, and weekly.
·         They were almost fifty when they got married.
·         He hardly ever say something nice to his wife.
·         While overseas, he frequently phoned home.
·         Davud is not nearly always right although she thinks she is always right.
·         She complained that he never smiled back.
·         We only write to each other very occasionally.
·         Sharma seldom reads the Bhagavgitha.
·         Sometimes she stays late in the office to complete her work.
·         Our cat was bitten twice by the same dog.
·         The man usually proposes marriage.

POSITION OF ADVERBS

1)   The adverb usually follows the object
Ex: He trained his students
2)   Sometimes, for the sake of emphasis, it is placed in an unusual position.
Ex: Slowly but steadily they advanced
3)   The adverb usually follows an intransitive verb.
Ex: Ramya is always busy
4)   Adverbs of time are often used before the intransitive verb, but not before the verb to be
Ex: Akhila is always late
5)   The adverb usually comes between the auxiliary and the main verb.
Ex: I do not know anything about it.
6)   The adverb is usually placed before the adjective qualifies.
Ex: Rishitha is too hasty
7)   If the verb is am/ are/ is / was, there adverbs are placed after the verb.
Ex: Nikhila is always at home in evenings.
8)   The word ‘only’ should be placed immediately before the word it modifies.
Ex: Karthik made only one mistake.
9)   The Adverb ‘too much’ is used with nouns and ‘much too’ with adjectives.
Ex: Too much pain
      Much too painful
10)        The adverb (As) is not used after Call and consider.
Ex: I always consider him my son.3
     Ramya called him a fool.
11)        ‘very much’ should be used with comparative forms.
Ex: It is very much better to go there.
12)        Before the word ‘enough’ an adjective under positive form should be used.
Ex: Sowmya is enough lucky to get the lottery.
13)        When an adverb modifies an adjective or another adverb, the adverb usually comes before it.
Ex: Do not walk so fast
14)        The auxiliaries ‘have to’ and ‘used to’ prefer the adverb in front of them.
Ex: Lavanya is always used to agree with me.
15)        When there are two or more adverbs after a verb, the normal order is, adverb of manner, adverb of place, adverb of time.
Ex: Vijaya sang well in the concert
16)        The adverb ‘late’ indicates time and ‘lately’ means recently.
Ex: I have not seen him lately.
17)         When we begin a sentence with seldom, never, hardly, scarcely, barely, neither, never, the rule of inversion should be appied.
Ex: Not only does she read but also writes.
18)        Adverbs of manner, which answer the question How? Are generally placed after the verb or after the object if here is one.
Ex: it is raining heavily
19)        Adverbs or adverb phrases of place and of time are also usually placed after the verb or after the object if there is one.
Ex: Baba will come here.
20)        The derived adjectives such as interested/ pleased, satisfied, delighted are sued with ‘much’ but not ‘very’.
Ex: Bhanu is much interested to play chess.
21)        ‘Too’ and ‘Enough’ are opposite meaning. ‘Too’ is used before the word it qualifies.
Ex: Prasanna is too weak to work.
      Padmaja is rich enough to buy a car.
22)        ‘Else’ should be followed by ‘but’, ‘other’ should be followed by ‘than’.
Ex: It is nothing but violence.
Prashanthi is much interested in dance.
23)        The adverb quite means perfectly, completely should not be used with the adjective ‘Handsome’.
Ex: Ruthivk is very handsome.
24)        Hardly and scarcely are followed by when not ‘than’. No sooner is follower by than, not ‘when’ or ‘then’.
Ex: Hardly had I reached to station. When the train left.
25)        In negative sentences the adverb of frequency follows not.
Ex: Gayathri is not often late
26)        In interrogative sentences the adverb of frequency follows the subject immediately.
Ex: Have you ever travelled by car.
27)        If the verb is a compound one, the adverb usually placed after the auxiliary.
Ex: Satya will always works properly